Ataúro with its wide range of habitats, from coastal to rugged forested mountains, has many bird species some of which are very rare, including the endangered Timor green pigeon. Ataúro and especially the area around Mt. Manukoko has been identified by Birdlife International as an Important Bird Area (IBA) because of the diversity and populations of birds supported.
Other wildlife on Atáuro includes civets, bats, geckos, lizards, shrews and snakes. Research on these has been carried out by a number of organisations including Conservation International and the Tropical Research Initiative at Victor Valley College.